eTOPIX_Neuroinflammation Reagents from AdipoGen Life Sciences October 2019
Neuroinflammation Research Tools
Interleukin-33, Progranulin, Irisin,
Inflammasomes, Tubulin Modifications
PSD-95 in Synaptic Development,
Notch Signaling and Neurogenesis & Neurochemicals
Unique Active IL-33 Proteins & Blocking Antibody
NEW: IL-33 is involved in Brain Development!
IL-33 is a nuclear-associated cytokine acting via the receptor ST2, that is normally released by damaged or necrotic cells acting as an “alarmin”, an immediate indicator of tissue stress. IL-33 is also expressed in the brain, mainly in astrocytes. IL-33 regulates the synapse elimination by microglia leading to normal synaptic development. IL-33 is involved in the neuroinflammation of many neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS).
IL-33 (oxidation resistant) (human) (rec.) (untagged) (Prod. No. AG-40B-0160) is a form of IL-33 that cannot be inhibited by oxidation that occurs in the extracellular environment upon secretion. Mutations at amino acids C208S/C232S protect IL-33 from oxidation and increase its activity.
LIT: Oxidation of the alarmin IL-33 regulates ST2-dependent inflammation: E.S. Cohen, et al.; Nat. Commun. 6, ID8327 (2015)
anti-IL-33 (mouse), mAb (rec.) (blocking) (Bondy-1-1) (Prod. No. AG-27B-0013) is an unique blocking antibody to study IL-33 functions in vivo or in vitro. It blocks the binding of IL-33 to its receptor complex ST2/IL-1RAcp.
The STANDARD Progranulin ELISA Kits
Progranulin is a multifunctional protein with many biological activities in cancer, inflammation, metabolic disease and neurodegeneration. In the brain, PGRN as a lysosomal resident protein regulates microglial proliferation, recruitment, differentiation, activation and phagocytosis, suggesting that PGRN plays a central role in the regulation of neuroinflammatory responses.
Progranulin is a biomarker for Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD).
The Progranulin [PGRN] (human) ELISA Kit (Prod. No. AG-45A-0018Y) is a Sandwich ELISA for specific quantitative determination of human Progranulin in serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants and urine. It also has been used to determine Progranulin in CSF. This Kit provides trusted reproducible results, is cited in hundreds of scientific publications and has been used to determine cut-off values for FTLD!
Download the ELISA Kit Manual
Unique PTM-Specific Antibodies
Microtubules, actin filaments and neurofilaments compose the cytoskeleton in neurons, maintaining cell polarity, architecture and morphology. Deregulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton/MT function leads to neurodegenerative diseases, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia, Parkinson’s disease (PD) and others. Microtubules are regulated by Post-translational Modifications (PTMs) that are highly dynamic and often reversible processes where protein functional properties are altered by addition of a chemical group or another protein to its amino acid residues.
anti-Tubulin (glycylated), pAb (Gly-pep1) (Prod. No. AG-25B-0034) is a unique antibody that recognizes mono or bi-glycylated Tubulins. In immunofluorescence labeling, the antibody strongly labels glycylated microtubules. As glycylation of microtubules is particularly found in cilia and flagella, Gly-pep1 labels motile cilia as well as some (mostly very long) primary cilia. This antibody works in ICC, IP and WB applications.
LIT: Tubulin glycylation controls primary cilia length: S. Gadadhar, et al.; J. Cell Biol. 216, 2701 (2017)
Unique PSD-95 Antibody to detect Excitatory Synapses
PSD-95 is a member of proteins located at a specialized postsynaptic membrane region, called the postsynaptic density (PSD). PSD-95 plays a primary role in synaptic development and maturation and is regulated by palmitoylation at its N-terminal cysteine residues leading to its postsynaptic targeting. Palmitoylated PSD-95 is almost exclusively localized at excitatory synapses in neurons.
FIGURE: Palmitoylated PSD-95 is detected by Immunocytochemistry using anti-PSD-95 (palmitoylated), mAb (rec.) (PF11) (Prod. No AG-27B-0021).
Protective Role of Irisin in Alzheimer’s Disease
Irisin is a protein cleaved from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and has a beneficial role in adipose tissues, bone and brain. FNDC5/Irisin secreted by muscle during exercise is beneficial on synaptic plasticity and memory in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) models.
Addition of AdipoGen Life Sciences' recombinant Irisin (Prod. No. AG-40B-0136) in a mouse model of AD was neuroprotective and rescued amyloid-β oligomer-induced memory impairment.
LIT: Exercise-linked FNDC5/irisin rescues synaptic plasticity and memory defects in Alzheimer’s models: M.V. Lourenko, et al.; Nat. Med. 25, 165 (2019)
AdipoGen Life Sciences provides the best recombinant Irisin/FNDC5 proteins, antibody and ELISA Kit to study Irisin and FNDC5 in vitro and in vivo:
Inflammasome Inhibition Prevents Neurodegeneration
MCC950 . Na (Prod. No. AG-CR1-3615) is a water-soluble potent NLRP3 inflammasome inhbitor. In multiple rodent Parkinson Disease (PD) models, MCC950 inhibited inflammasome activation and effectively mitigated motor deficits, nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates.
LIT: Inflammasome inhibition prevents α-synuclein pathology and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice: R. Gordon, et al.; Sci. Tranl. Med. 10, 465 (2018)
ADAM17 - Regulator of Neuroinflammation
ADAM17 is involved in neuroinfammation and regulates neurite outgrowth and myelination. While neuronal ADAM17 may have protective efects on the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by triggering the non-amyloidogenic pathway, microglial ADAM17 may have the opposite effects. The ADAM17 substrate TNF-α has emerged to be involved in the pathogenesis of AD.
AdipoGen Life Sciences offers the unique ADAM17 blocking antibody clone D1(A12) in two different variants.
NEW Parkin Tools for Parkinson Research
The Parkin E3 Ligase TR-FRET Kit (Prod. No. SBB-KF0036) provides a fast and sensitive method monitoring ubiquitin conjugation onto both wild-type Parkin and a more active mutant W403A in solution. No need of running and staining an SDS gel.
The kit enables continuous TR-FRET detection of ubiquitin chain formation onto Parkin in a real-time detection setup, or in an end-point configuration if desired.
NEWLY available: Parkin (E3 Ligase) (human) (rec.) (His)
BULK Available: Potent γ-Secretase Inhibitor
Compound E (Prod. No. AG-CR1-0081) is a cell permeable, potent, selective, non-transition state and non-competitive γ-secretase inhibitor.
LIT: Presenilin-1 and -2 are molecular targets for gamma-secretase inhibitors: D. Seiffert, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 34086 (2000)
Potent Chemical Alzheimer Modulators
Fipronil (Prod. No. AG-CR1-3648) is a herbicide that has been shown to be a potent Alzheimer's disease (AD) inducing agent (Alzheimerogen).
LIT: Specific triazine herbicides induce amyloid-β42 production: E. Portelius, et al.; J. Alzheimers Dis. 54, 1593 (2016)